And I say to any creature who may be listening, there can be no justice so long as laws are absolute.
Even life itself is an exercise in exceptions.

--- Captain Jean-Luc Picard

This tutorial is optional, in the sense that it does not talk about Windows programming per se. Error handling is an important topic though, thus please don't disregard it completely. If you are on the fast track to get your first window up and running, however, it will be enough to understand how to use the Expected idea introduced in this tutorial; or at least to understand it well enough to be able to read the source code of the tutorials.


The C++ programming language provides built-in support for throwing and catching exceptions if something goes wrong at runtime, by offering the try, throw, and catch expressions.

Here is a silly example:

// windows includes
#include <windows.h>

// exceptions
#include <exception>
#include <stdexcept>

// test function
bool nurDerBVB(int x)
	if (x == 4)
		throw std::invalid_argument("I don't like the number 4 very much!");
	if (x == 9)
		return true;
		return false;

// winmain
int WINAPI WinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance, HINSTANCE hPrevInstance, LPSTR lpCmdLine, int nShowCmd)
	catch (std::invalid_argument)
		// handle the exception
		return -1;
	return 0;

First, a try-block is used to enclose the statement that might throw an exception. The test function signals that an exceptional condition - often, an error - occurred, by throwing an exception. C++ offers a few standard exceptions to throw, which are listed here. In this case, an invalid argument exception is thrown when the test function is fed with the number $4$.

To handle exceptions that may be thrown, catch-blocks are implemented immediately following a try-block. In this example, WinMain simply exits with return value $-1$ after an exception was caught.

It is possible to use an object of any type as the operand of a throw expression, in most cases it is easiest to use the std::exception or one of its derived classes. However, if those are not appropriate enough, it is possible to derive a custom exception class from std::exception.

For more information about exception handling, check the appropriate page on the MSDN.

There are a few problems with exceptions though: most importantly for games, exceptions are really slow. In most C++ implementations the code in a try-block runs as fast as it normally would, however, a catch-block is orders of magnitude slower: The runtime increases linearly with the depth of the call-stack.

Exceptions are also hopelessly serial and do not allow storing of error messages to be handled at a later moment.


To overcome these limitions, Dr. Andrei Alexandrescu proposes the Expected<T> class. Please listen to his excellent talk Systematic Error Handling in C++ to understand the main ideas and the full power of this strategy.

The key idea is that Expected<T> is either a T or the exception preventing T to be created. The advantages of using Expected over standard exceptions are plenty. The new strategy allows for multiple exceptions to exist at the same time and they can be teleported accross thread boundaries, nothrow boundaries and even accross time: they can be stored and thrown later. In later tutorials, this will prove to be extremely handy.

Here is the class based on the above talk:

template<class T>
class Expected
		T result;
		std::exception_ptr spam;
    bool gotResult;
	Expected() {};
	// constructors and destructor
	Expected(const T& r) : result(r), gotResult(true) {};
	Expected(T&& r) : result(std::move(r)), gotResult(true) {};
	Expected(const Expected& e) : gotResult(e.gotResult) { ... }
	Expected(Expected&& e) : gotResult(e.gotResult) { ... }
    ~Expected() {};

	void swap(Expected& e) { ... }
    // creating expect from exceptions
	template<class E>
	static Expected<T> fromException(const E& exception) { ... }
    static Expected<T> fromException(std::exception_ptr p) { ... }
    static Expected<T> fromException() { ... }
    // operator overload
	Expected& operator=(const Expected& e) { ... }
	// getters
	bool isValid() const { return gotResult; }
    bool wasSuccessful() const { return gotResult; }
	T& get()
		if (!gotResult)
		return result;
	const T& get() const { ... }		
    // probe for exception
	template<class E>
	bool hasException() const { ... }

class Expected<void> 
	std::exception_ptr spam;
	template <typename E>
	Expected(E const& e) : spam(std::make_exception_ptr(e)) { }
	Expected(Expected&& o) : spam(std::move(o.spam)) { }
	Expected() : spam() {}

	Expected& operator=(const Expected& e) { ... }

	bool isValid() const { return !spam; }
    bool wasSuccessful() const { return !spam; }
	void get() const { if (!valid()) std::rethrow_exception(spam); }

And here is a variation of the example from above:

util::Expected<void> nurDerBVB(int x)
	if (x != 9)
		return std::invalid_argument("I really only like the number 9!");

	return { };

int WINAPI WinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance, HINSTANCE hPrevInstance, LPSTR lpCmdLine, int nShowCmd)
	if (nurDerBVB(4).isValid())
		return 0;
		return -1;

So the basic idea behind the Expected-idiom is that each function has an expected return value (an int, a class, void, ...). Thus, if the function call succeeds, the return value is stored in an instance of the Expected class. If something goes wrong however, the actual error is stored in the same instance of the Expected class. After having called a function, it is very easy to simply check whether we got the expected return value or an error.

In this example, the function returns an empty Expected (as it was supposed to return void) if everything went well, but if it sees the number $4$, it returns an Expected with an error message. In WinMain, it is then possible to branch off depending on whether the returned Expected is empty or holds a nasty error within.

You can download the source code for the above example from here.

In conclusion: Error handling with Expected is a lot more powerful than standard exceptions and in addition, it makes the code a lot easier to read. Everything flows more naturally.



(in alphabetic order)


In the next tutorial we will implement a thread-safe logging service.

<< Hello World! A Thread-Safe Logger >>