Over the centuries, mankind has tried many ways of combating the forces of evil... prayer, fasting, good works and so on. Up until Doom, no one seemed to have thought about the double-barrel shotgun. Eat leaden death, demon ...

--- Terry Pratchett

# An overview of DirectX

Just assume that you want to write a piece of software that needs direct access to the GPU and CPU, has networking capabilities, plays audio and uses the mouse, keyboard and a joystick for user input. That sounds like fun, but can you imagine writing drivers to control every single GPU out there and change your program depending on the capacities of the GPU? Can you imagine polling all the different available keyboards or joysticks, knowing that each company has different standards? That doesn't sound like so much fun anymore, does it?

Well, thankfully, Microsoft and all the hardware manufacturers, made a huge effort and created a very high-performance standard, DirectX, that allows programmers to access all the above mentioned features with relative ease. Granted, when using DirectX, the programmers lose a tiny bit of control, but hell, it is definitely worth it. When I first started to program as a kid, things were a lot more difficult, DirectX and similar APIs are definitely a boon.

But what exactly is DirectX? As was already mentioned, DirectX allows relatively direct control over a computer's hardware, with some software layers between the programmer and the actual hardware. Basically, with COM, Microsoft invented a set of conventions that all hardware vendors must use when implementing their various drivers to talk to the hardware. The technology Microsoft and the hardware manufacturers use to achieve this is called the Component Object Model, or COM, for short.

For programmers, that means that as long as the hardware manufacturers and vendors stick to those conventions, any DirectX based programs will (theoretically) work on all available hardware. To get acquainted with DirectX, we will take a look at its build-up.

## DirectX Architecture

As an example, we will look at Direct3D. Here is an image, taken from the MSDN, explaining the architecture of Direct3D:

Direct3D applications can exist alongside GDI applications, and both have access to the computer's graphics hardware through the device driver for the graphics card. Unlike GDI, Direct3D can take advantage of hardware features by creating a Hardware Abstraction Layer, or HAL, device.

In general, the HAL is part of the operating system, granting the rest of the system access to abstract hardware devices devoid of the above mentioned idiosyncrasies with which real hardware is often endowed. In the context of Direct3D, the HAL device provides access to the pipeline functions of the GPU (covered in a later tutorial), based upon the feature set supported by the graphics card. If a feature is not provided by the hardware, the program code will be emulated by software in the Hardware Emulation Layer, or HEL.

Basically, the HAL talks directly to the hardware (which means that the HAL very often is the actual device driver from the manufacturer) and thus is quite fast. If, however, if a feature is not supported by the hardware, the application doesn't halt, thankfully, but is emulated in the HEL, using a software algorithm. Obviously, this will be slower, but that is still better than entire programs breaking apart.

## DirectX Components

Let us take a look at the different components of DirectX:

### Graphics

#### Direct3D

Well, obviously this component of DirectX is used to create and draw 3D graphics on the computer screen. We will deal with Direct3D, in great detail, in the following tutorials.

#### DXGI

The primary goal of DXGI is to manage low-level tasks that can be independent of the DirectX graphics runtime. DXGI provides a common framework for future graphics components; the first component that was to take advantage of DXGI is Microsoft Direct3D 10.

DXGI provides objects to handle tasks such as enumerating graphics adapters and monitors, enumerating display modes, choosing buffer formats, sharing resources between processes (such as between applications and the Desktop Window Manager), and presenting rendered frames to a window or monitor for display.

#### DirectDraw

This was the primary rending and 2D-bitmap engine. It is deprecated in favour of Direct2D.

#### Direct2D

The Direct2D component, oh wonder, is used to draw 2D graphics. Direct2D allows interoperability with GDI, GDI+, and Direct3D and permits rendering to and from a Direct3D surface, as well as to and from a GDI/GDI+ device context (HDC) with full serialization of surfaces and device contexts, which enables it to work with other native Windows technologies such as DirectWrite.

#### DirectWrite

DirectWrite is a text layout and glyph rendering API. When running on top of Direct2D, DirectWrite is hardware-accelerated. We will use Direct2D and DirectWrite in a later tutorial to print text (such as FPS information) to our game window.

### Audio

#### DirectX Media Objects

DirectX Media Objects allowed to stream video and audio files. They have been superseded by Media Foundation Transforms. We won't cover anything related to this in our tutorials.

#### DirectSound

The outdated sound component (deprecated in favour of XAudio2 and XACT3) only supported digital sound.

#### DirectMusic

DirectMusic added support for MIDI technology to DirectSound (but no MP3 support), but we won't talk much about all that, as it is deprecated in favour of XAudio2 and XACT3.

#### XAudio2

XAudio2 is based on the Xbox-360-Sound-API (shudders) and has deprecated DirectSound. A few of the highlights of XAudio2 are Digital Signal Processing-Effects (turning animal screams into scary monster sounds - think of pixel shaders for audio), Submixing (combining several sounds into a single audio stream) and Surround Sound.

#### XACT3

The Cross-platform Audio Creation Tool (XACT) is an audio programming library and engine for playing audio.

#### FMOD

FMOD, developed by Firelight Technologies, is not a component of DirectX, but it is mentioned here, since in these tutorials, we will be using FMOD to add music and sounds to our games (just like Blizzard does, for example).

### Input

#### DirectInput

This component handles all the different input devices, such as the mouse, keyboard and joysticks. DirectInput also allows us to create Force-Feedback-Effects. DirectInput does not send event messages and runs directly on the hardware. It is now deprecated, however, in favour of XInput for Xbox 360 (shudders, again). In these tutorials we will still use DirectInput, it might be deprecated, but it is functionally complete.

#### XInput

XInput is an API for "next generation" controllers and was introduced in 2005 alongside the launch of the Xbox 360. Microsoft describes it as being easier to program for and requiring less setup than DirectInput. XInput is compatible with DirectX version 9 and later.

### Networking

#### DirectPlay

DirectPlay is the networking component of DirectX. It allows us to make connections through the Internet or via local LAN, for example. It basically sends and receives all the packets for us, so that we do not really have to worry about sockets and other stuff. DirectPlay also supports sessions and lobbies. DirectPlay unfortunately produced a lot of overhead, thus most games have their own network-code. DirectPlay is deprecated in favour of Games for Windows - Live technology. (shudders, yet again)

### Advanced Components

#### DirectCompute

DirectCompute supports general-purpose computing on GPUs. This is very interesting, but rather advanced, we won't cover this until way later.

### Utilities

#### DirectX Diagnostics

DirectX Diagnostics gathers information about the system and the DirectX components installed on it, as well as providing a number of tests to ensure that components are working properly.

#### DirectX Setup

This allows to test, during installation, whether the required version of DirectX is available on the system, and if not, the installation of the required DirectX version can be requested.

This concludes the overview of the DirectX components. Reading all of this you might be scared that once you mastered one component, it might be deprecated, but don't worry. Even though graphics, and game technology in general, is moving very fast, DirectX is always downwards compatible, i. e. if we write DirectX 11 code, we can be sure that it will still work in DirectX99, when the cyborgs rise up. How does DirectX manage that rather incredible feat? Well, DirectX is based, as we briefly mentioned in the introduction of this tutorial, on COM technology ...

# The Sith Dreadmasters (or COM)

As computer programs are getting larger and larger, abstraction and hierarchy are getting more and more important to avoid chaos and disaster. The Component Object Model, COM, for short, is a software architecture that allows applications to be build from binary software components - think of Lego blocks for example, simply put the blocks together and the result always works (although the result might not be what we had expected).

Lego blocks can be stuck together to create more advanced shapes. The different Lego blocks actually do not care about their brethren's particularities, they are all compatible with each other.

Obviously, to implement such a technology, one needs a very generic interface that can take the form of any possible type of function that one can imagine. That is what COM does. COM is the underlying architecture that forms the foundation for higher-level services such as DirectX.

The COM defines several fundamental concepts, there is a binary standard for function calling between COM components and there is a way for components to dynamically discover the interfaces implemented by other components. What does that mean for programmers? New features can be added to COM objects without breaking any software that uses that COM object, different COM objects can be added together and COM objects can be changed without recompiling the program (which means that programs can be updated to use newer COM versions without having to recompile everything). Amazing, just like Lego (and it somehow reminds me of vector spaces ...).

This is great, right, but what exactly is a COM object? A COM object basically is a C++ class that implements a certain number of interfaces. An interface is, loosely speaking, a set of functions, and is used to communicate with the actual COM object.

There can be multiple COM objects each with multiple interfaces, the important thing is that all those interfaces must be derived from the IUNKNOWN interface:

struct IUNKNOWN
{
virtual HRESULT __stdcall QueryInterface(
[in]  REFIID riid,
[out] void   **ppvObject
) = 0;

virtual ULONG __stdcall Addref() = 0;
virtual ULONG __stdcall Release() = 0;
}


Note that all the methods are pure virtual functions, thus all derived interfaces must at least implement each of the above methods. (As a reminder: __stdcall means that the parameters are pushed on the global stack from right to left).

### QueryInterface

This function is the key to the COM world as it is used to request a pointer to the desired interface. To request for a specific interface, the interface ID, a 128 bits long unique integer, must be known. QueryInterface calls the AddRef function on the returned pointer.

### AddRef and Release

As COM is language-independent, it can't, for example, use malloc or new to create new objects, but somehow it has to keep track of how many objects there are at any given moment in time. Thus, COM objects use reference counting to keep track of their lives. When the reference count is equal to zero, the objects are destroyed internally. As you can now guess, the AddRef functions increments the counter by one, and Release decrements the same counter by one.

For more information on how to create your own COM objects, check Chapter 5 of LaMothe's book or Microsofts COM page.

# (Direct)X-Com

The good news is that DirectX tries to hide most of the tedious COM business behind little wrapper functions. Thank you, Microsoft. We have already seen that DirectX is made up of many different COM objects, so now all that is left to learn is how to actually get access to those objects.

Now assume that we have an interface pointer to a COM object. What actually happens in the background is that we have a Virtual Function Table pointer. A virtual function table is a mechanism used in a programming language to support dynamic dispatching, that is, whenever a class defines a virtual function, the compiler adds a hidden member variable to the class which points to an array of pointers to (virtual) functions. These pointers are used at runtime to invoke the appropriate function implementations, because at compile time it may not yet be known if the base function or a derived one, implemented by a class that inherits from the base class, is to be called.

So, to recapitulate, COM is a way of writing component software that allows the creation of reusable modules that are dynamically linked together at runtime. Each of these objects are collections of interfaces which, in turn, are a collection of functions that are referenced through a virtual function table pointer. Thus, all we have to do to work with DirectX COM objects is to "create" them and to retrieve their interface pointers. We will learn how to do just that in the next tutorial.

# References

(in alphabetic order)

## Literature

• Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN)
• Structured Computer Organization, by Andrew S. Tanenbaum
• Tricks of the Windows Game Programming Gurus, by André LaMothe

• Lego
• Microsoft
• Steam